Earth

Paper Details:EaES 285 Earth Systems 1 of 3 Project 1: Clouds and the Global Energy Balance Due: Feb 15 by End of Day In this project you will use satellite data from NASA’s Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) to study the Earth Energy Budget and how it is affected by the presence of clouds. In Part 1, you will make maps and graphs of net radiation (incoming minus outgoing radiation). In Part 2, you will look at net shortwave (incoming visible minus outgoing visible radiation) and net longwave (incoming infrared minus outgoing infrared radiation) and see how these differ between cloudy and clear days. In Part 3, you will look at longwave emissions from the city of Chicago and see how clouds cool or warm the city by changing longwave emissions. I encourage you to read more about the satellite data you will use here: https://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/ For this project and all subsequent projects, your write-up will have a similar structure as follows: Abstract: One paragraph (maximum of 300 words) that explains and summarizes the results and conclusions drawn from the whole project. This is likely the last thing you will do after you finish. You should briefly introduce the motivation for the project and the major results/findings. There are many examples you can follow but here is a decent guide: https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/abstract/ Introduction: One half to a page long that provides a basic background to the reader. In this case, you will describe the concept of the energy balance and how clouds influence the energy balance. You can rely on my lectures or the textbook to assist in writing this. You should also include one concise statement of the objective and/or the question you are trying to answer. Results and Interpretations: Here you will provide Figures with titles and descriptive captions, and your interpretation of these figures. What can you learn from the satellite data? What are some interesting and surprising aspects of the results? Can you make any generalizations? For this project, I recommend that you separate this section into Parts 1, 2 and 3. In total, I expect that you will hand in something that is about 3 pages of writing and include between 4-6 maps and figures. It is important that every figure has a caption, title and clearly labeled axes. Also, always include the units of physical quantities. Every figure should also be described and referenced in the text. In other words, don’t place a figure in the paper but make no mention of it. EaES 285 Earth Systems 2 of 3 Part 1 (~week 1, Jan 26 – Feb 1): In the first part of this project, you will make maps of incoming solar radiation and net radiation, which is the difference between incoming and outgoing radiation. I ask that you focus on two months of the year: January and June. These two months represent the period of peak solar radiation for the southern and northern hemispheres, respectively. Start by making maps of “incoming solar flux” for January and June and then also make the plots of the zonal average for incoming solar. Describe the results? What is the pattern of incoming solar? How does it differ between January and June? What is the latitude of peak radiation for January and June? How would this pattern be different if the Earth had a different tilt? (For reference: https://climate.ncsu.edu/edu/Tilt) Nowgothroughthesamesetofexercisesfor“netradiation”. Ofcourse,youwillseethatradiation shares many similarities with incoming radiation but also there are differences. Describe and identify places where net radiation looks different from incoming solar. In other words, what are places that have high incoming solar but relatively low net radiation and vice versa. Provide some hypotheses for these differences (e.g. there are giant mirrors on the ground). Part 2 (~week 2, Feb 2 – Feb 8): In the second part of this project, you will look at net shortwave radiation, which is how much shortwave radiation is leaving the planet. If net shortwave is close to 300 W m-2, this means most of the incoming radiation is reflected by the Earth. If net shortwave is close to 0, this means most of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed. Remember, shortwave is the high frequency, high energy radiation that is emitted from the sun. First, make a graph of net shortwave for January and June using the “clear sky” or “no clouds” file. Now do the same for the net shortwave with “clouds” or “all”. Calculate the difference between these two (net shortwave with clouds minus net shortwave without clouds) and this will tell you how clouds influence net shortwave. (We will explain how to look at the difference between two maps.) Describe the results. Where and when do clouds influence net shortwave? Now make a map of “cloud fraction” to see if your results make sense. In other words, do the locations with the biggest cloud effects on shortwave also have the highest cloud fraction? Now repeat this same analysis for “net longwave”, which is the amount of low frequency (infrared) energy emitted from the Earth. How do clouds affect net longwave? Do clouds have a bigger effect on shortwave or longwave radiation? This Part is complicated! Take some time to consider the results and ask questions of your peers and professors. EaES 285 Earth Systems 3 of 3 Part 3 (~week 3, Feb 8 – Feb 15): In this last part of the project, you will look at the longwave radiation that is emitted from Chicago. Remember, the amount of longwave emissions varies with the surface temperature. This is the way “no contact thermometers” estimate your forehead temperature. You will rely here on the “surface longwave up” files which tell you how much longwave emissions are coming from the surface of the Earth. This is different from the previous files, which provided information on the “top of the atmosphere” (i.e. TOA). You will extract data for Chicago using the following coordinates: Extract the monthly emissions of longwave radiation from Chicago for both cloudy and clear sky conditions. I recommend saving your results in a google sheet. Now use the Stefan Boltzmann Equation to calculate the temperature of Chicago. The Stefan Boltzmann Law state that Energy=K*T^4 where K is the Stefan Boltzmann constant and T is temperature in Kelvins: K=5.670374419 × 10−8 watt per meter2 per K4. You know the energy emitted from Chicago from the satellite data and you can use this information to estimate the temperature of Chicago. Now you need to rewrite this equation to estimate the surface temperature. Estimate Chicago’s temperature for both cloudy and clear sky conditions and save it in a google sheet. How does the surface temperature differ between the cloudy and clear sky data? In other words, do clouds make Chicago warmer or cooler? Lastly, lookup monthly temperature data for Chicago and see how it compares to your results. Did you make a good estimate of our temperature based on longwave emissions? Why might this approach be inaccurate?

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